POISONS by Another Name

This page includes segments on

  1. FOOD ADDITIVES (including flouride, aluminum, aspartame, splenda, fructose or high fructose corn syrup, alloxan, and a brief history of the political/scientific battle against food additives)
  2. COMMMON TABLE SALT
  3. MILK
  4. SOY
  5. IRRADIATED FOODS
  6. COMMERCIAL MEAT, PORK and POULTRY
  7. ALCOLHOL
. . . in that order.

Note that we have NOT included the kinds of toxins which enter our foods through the use of pesticides, various "handling" techniques, or other environmental toxins, including radio-active byproducts outgassed from nuclear power plants or military activities - or the chemicals dumped by various industrial activities. Even so, be prepared for a bumpy ride.

 
#1: FOOD ADDITIVES:

Fluoride:

Fluoride is a by-product of aluminum production. (Please read about aluminum below and also its use in common cooking utensils on our Food Preparation page.)  Fluorides, like lead, attack the central nervous system but are even more toxic than lead. For more on health effects, with documentation: http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/index.html with more here: http://www.fluoridation.com/


Sources of fluoride include fluoridated toothpaste, fluoridated tap water, infant formula, juices, tea (especially non-organic and instant teas), processed cereals, soda, wine, beer, mechanically deboned chicken, canned fish, shellfish, cooked veal, teflon pans, fluoridated salt, aneasthetics (enflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane), and cigarettes. Also pesticides and superphosphate fertilizer made from rock: http://www.fluoridealert.org/f-sources.htm

Consider this: if fluoride is "harmless" why did the EPA in 2005 call for a moratorium on fluoride in drinking water?

You may want to read this out-of-print book, published in 1958 under the title of Your Health and Sanity in the Age of Treason by Reverend R. Swinburne, M.D. and published by the Humanitarian Society. The book
focuses primarily, though not exclusively, on sodium fluoride, using quotes from doctors, dentists, and the USDA. Online text is here.

Although Mindell does not make a distinction between naturally occuring fluorine and sodium fluoride as the above book details, the following segment provides the not-so-pretty story concerning the manner and reasons for which sodium fluoride entered the food and water supply. Also correct is that in excess amounts, both fluorine and sodium fluoride are poisons although as Swinburne points out, each have differing effects on human health). The following as quoted from Earl Mindell, Rph, Ph.D in his book Prescription Alternatives, 2nd edition:

"The story behind the story: During WWII we learned how to manufacture things from aluminum: airplanes, buildings, pots and pans, to name a few. [See our info on aluminum pans at our page on Food Preparation.] We also greatly increased our production of chemical fertilizers. The downside of both these manufacturing processes was a byproduct called fluoride. Altho fluoride is a trace mineral naturally occuring in our food, in anything but those trace amounts it's a more potent poison than arsenic.  Disposing of the 1000's of pounds of fluoride by-product became a major problem in American manufacturing. The manufacturers tried blowing it out their smokestacks, dumping it into rivers, and burying it in the ground, but the immediate result was dead and deformed cows and other animals within miles of the smokestacks, rivers full of dead fish and poisoned aquifers. In fact, its primary use was as a rat poison. Finally the US Public Health Service did a study that claimed to show that one part per million of fluoride in water reduced tooth decay by 60%, and thus began the trickling of fluoride into our water supply.

The price of fluoride went up 1000% almost overnite, and the problem of how to dispose of a potent toxin was solved. The practice of water fluoridation was further justified by more glowing (but flawed) studies claiming to show that communities using fluoridated drinking water had a much lower rate of tooth decay. . .

.....Japan and all continental Europe either rejected the fluoride concept from the beginning or have stopped the practice. Most of Great Britain has also discontinued the practice, and Australia and New Zealand are in the process of reversing the trend. A 1994 study of virtually all of New Zealand schoolchildren showed no benefit in dental health in fluoridated communities.  . .

So much fluoride has been put into our water and toothpaste over the past 30  years that levels in our food chain are very high. While eating a normal diet, the average person EXCEEDS the recommended dose. Fluoride is a potent enzyme inhibitor that interferes with enzymes in the body, particularly in the lining of your intestines, causing stomach pain, gas and bloating. This enzyme-inhibiting effect also interferes with thyroid gland function.  Some studies indicate that fluoride damages the immune system, leading to autoimmune disorders and arthritis. There is also evidence that communities with fluoridated water have a higher incidence of heart disease, and higher rates of bone cancer in young men. Some 30% of the children in fluoridated communities have fluorosis, a malformation of tooth enamel that causes discoloration (usually chalky white patches) and brittleness. This is a permanent change in the teeth that has been associated with abnormal bone structure.

. . . Fluoride is absorbed through the mucous membranes. . . There have been numerous reports of children poisoned by ingesting high levels of fluoride through school fluoride mouthwash programs, or fluoridated toothpastes full of sweeteners that children want to swallow. . . Please avoid fluoride, in all forms including toothpaste. . . "

Aluminum:

Aluminum is a a well recognized nerve toxin, and has been strongly linked to Alzheimer's (and even osteoporosis).  Although aluminum is a common element in the environment,  the widespread use of aluminum as an additive is now a problematic for us all. Aluminum is found in our public drinking water, women’s douches, buffered aspirin, antacids, antidiarrhoeal drugs like Kaopectate. A form of aluminum is used as a buffer and neutralizing agent in cereals and baking powder, also for clarifying sugar, in cake mixes, frozen dough, self-rising flour, processed foods. Also aluminum wrap, toothpaste in aluminum tubes, soda pop and other food products. Aluminum in the form of alum is one of many food additives that caused concern for the first head of the original FDA, Dr. Harvey Wiley. (see other entries on this page regarding Dr. Wiley's valiant, but futile fight to keep our food supply safe and free from additives and other ersatz food products).

Aspartame (or Nutrasweet):

Aspartame is an "insulin stimulant" and as such will not help you lose weight or control weight. An overview of what you should know. Adverse events reports submitted to the FDA. Products that commonly contain aspartame: Soft drinks, over-the-counter drugs & prescription drugs (very common and listed under "inactive ingredients"), vitamin & herb supplements, yogurt, instant breakfasts, candy, breath mints, cereals, sugar-free chewing gum, cocoa mixes, coffee beverages, instant breakfasts, gelatin desserts, frozen desserts, juice beverages, laxatives, milk drinks, shake mixes, tabletop sweeteners, tea beverages, instant teas and coffees, topping mixes, wine coolers, etc. Eliminate or replace prescription drugs that contain aspartame -- the pharmacist can tell you the ingredients of drugs. 

Also read Excitoxins: the Taste That Kills by Russell L. Blaylock, MD 

Splenda (or sucralose): http://www.truthaboutsplenda.com/

Acesulphame K:  Information on acesulphame K is limited and what we can find is mostly from the Center for Science in the Public Interest an organization about which we agree with the Weston A. Price Foundation that it is all too often guilty of disinformation. This article nevertheless seems to be based on real science.

High Fructose Corn syrup:

High fructose corn syrup is linked to both childhood and adult obesity, diabetes, stroke, heart attack, cancer, and a host of other serious diseases.

Here is one article titled Fructose: Maybe Not So Natural .  .and Not So Safe

And another article titled Double Danger of High Fructose Corn Syrup

Alloxan:

Dr. Harvey Wiley is considered to be the originator of the FDA, having witten the first Food and Drug and Cosmetic Act, which was passed in 1906 and considered by many to be the forerunner of today's FDA.  One of Dr. Wiley's many notable battles was against the bleached and refined flour that was then [in 1905] being introduced into the marketplace. It was a battle he lost with his removal from office a mere six years after his appointment in 1906 as the head administrator of the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. By 1939, bleached and refined flour, made from USDA-verified nutrient-depleted wheat, was required by Congress to have a handful of unstable, cheap vitamins added back in as a solution to the problem of what was basically a non-food.

Today we have another flour additive to worry about, known as alloxan.

Here is a copy of an email written by an MD that we recieved from a friend:

Google up alloxan!   I'm just full of good news today! I was just utterly shocked to have recently discovered another FDA first degree murder! When I studied chemistry forty plus years ago, they were using a fairly benign bleaching agent to bleach white flour. Now it comes out they have started using alloxan! Alloxan is a poison, the most famous spinner up of super oxide free radicals known to science! It is used to chemically produce diabetes in normal rats, because alloxan spins up enormous amounts of free radicals in pancreatic beta cells, utterly destroying them! Aspartame also so damages the mitochondria, that people are then damaged by the free radicals spun up by the damaged mitochondria! (Premature graying for example) The VERY LAST thing we need added to our diet is alloxan, (A well known grievous poison!) which the FDA now has being force fed to us in white flour! (This includes even pasta!) Boy! Is the FDA ever making it hard to get any wholesome food in this country!

Alloxan thus directly interacts with Aspartame to produce multi organ damage, including diabetes and syndrome X! It also makes the poisonings from many other junk-foods far worse, and causes advanced aging (just like Aspartame!) AND, many other DEGENERATIVE DISEASES!

I hope this information helps to prove to the New Mexico Legislature, and to the courts that the FDA is now indeed just farcical, since Rumsfeld in 1981 broke everything decent in our government to put the heinous Aspartame into Us!

Sure glad I eat mostly whole wheat bread! I will now avoid ALL white flour products from this point forward. Somebody, obviously just wants to kill us! [We hope you will seriously consider reading about Grains and Mycotoxins before you dedicate yourself to eating lots of grains, even whole grains!]

Please pass this on to the Minnesota Attorney General for me.

Sincerely,
James D. Bowen MD

A brief history of food addtivies in general:

From 1902 to 1907, Dr. Wiley, first head of the Bureau of Chemistry, used the newly emerging “muckraking” media of his day to educate hundreds of thousands of people all across the nation on the health-depleting effects of food additives and food processing. He did this by conducting a huge public experiment for which he drafted teams of healthy, young men who later became known as the Poison Squad. These young men started out on the old-fashioned American diet and then, one by one various food additives were added with the results being duly recorded by Dr. Wiley and then happily reported by the press.

Dr. Wiley’s intent was to demonstrate and document the deleterious effects of the various additives and chemicals being used by food processors for their “foods of commerce.”  These additives included boric acid, alum, benzoic acid, benzoates, sulphur dioxide, salicylates, sulfites, saccharin and more. 

Periodically, Dr. Wiley published bulletins detailing and describing the negative health effects of each of these additives. And on a daily basis, the progress and travails of Dr. Wiley’s Poison Squad was eagerly and hungrily reported by the muckrakers – and just as eagerly read by an increasingly enlightened public.  By 1906, Dr. Wiley and his Poison Squad were household words and enough public momentum had been established that Congress overwhelmingly passed the Pure Food and Drug Act - commonly known as the Wiley Act. Its chief architect was Dr. Wiley who today, because of this law and his tremendous efforts on its behalf, is regarded as the founder of the FDA.

Dr. Wiley was forced from office a mere six years after its creation, as a result of the powerful and well-financed political efforts of those whose interests he threatened. In response he dedicated himself to writing a book about his experiences, and when he went to market his manuscript, they all disappeared. Painstakingly he reconstructed the book, and self-published in 1929 under the title of A History of a Crime Against the Food Law. Within a few weeks Dr. Wiley died and within weeks after that all known copies of Wiley's book were pulled from bookstores and library shelves. Luckily for posterity, a manuscript was recovered. In the first chapter, Dr. Wiley makes the case that food preservatives are never harmless.

Today over five thousand chemicals are added to our foods, with an average annual consumption of some 14 pounds for every man, woman and child in America. Nearly 2000 of these chemicals have never been thoroughly tested for potential harmful effects. Another 1/3 have been determined by the FDA to be GRAS, or Generally Regarded As Safe, which is not a label that inspires full confidence when you consider the facts.

For example, propylene glycol is an ingredient added to many canned foods (and personal care products) but a trip to the local paint or hardware store will disclose large warning labels on products that contain this substance which tell you to avoid contact with skin, eyes or mucous membranes. A review of USDA safety data sheets for propylene glycol raises even more concerns. Historical evidence and political machinations should inspire additional cause for concern, as Eustace Mullins describes in his 1988 book Murder by Injection:

Coumarin, which was a key ingredient of imitation vanilla flavoring, had been in continuous use for 75 years before it was found to produce serious liver damage in laboratory animals. . . The 1938 Food and Drug Cosmetics Act [that mandated that substances had to be safe] certified 19 dyes for use in foods. Since then, 3 have been decertified, leaving 16 for use in foods . . . Dr. Arthur A. Nelson reported that FDA tests in 1957 showed that 10 of the 13 certified dyes then in use had produced cancers when injected under the skin of rats . . . Yellow AB and Yellow OB, which are known cancer hazards, have been widely used to color margarine and butter. They are made from a dangerous chemical called beta-napthylamine. It is notable because it has low toxicity, that is, it is not poisonous in its effect, but it is one of the most carcinogenic substances known . . . [Despite all this] manufacturers are adept at organizing influential lobbying groups in Washington, of which the public remains unaware. Some 96 companies, including Dow, Monsanto, Hoffman LaRoche and many others, put up $5000 each per year [as of the book's publication in 1988] to support the Council of Agricultural Science and Technology and the Institute of Food Technology, groups which systematically mislead the public about the dangers of cancer-causing food additives. They are able to minimize and weaken the frequent attempts by Congressmen to expose the dangers of many of these additives. It is all part of the game of public relations.

#2: SALT:

Excerpt from an article titled "Kitchen Transition":                                           

The salt that you find in table salt and most processed foods is sodium chloride. Salt in this form has been processed at high temperatures, which changes the molecular structure and removes vital minerals from the salt. Table salt also contains additives, anticaking agents, and even sugar. Excess salt consumption is associated with high blood pressure, fluid retention, heart and kidney disease.

Excerpts from Mercola article titled "Why You Should Avoid Common Table Salt Like the Plague":                      

Salt is essential for life - you cannot live without it. However, most people simply don't realize that there are enormous differences between the standard, refined table and cooking salt most of you are accustomed to using and healthy natural salt.

These differences can have a major impact on your staying healthy, or increasing your risk of diseases you want to avoid. . . Today's common table salt is poison that has nothing in common with natural salt.

Your table salt is actually 97.5% sodium chloride and 2.5% chemicals such as moisture absorbents, and iodine. Dried at over 1,200 degrees Fahrenheit, the excessive heat alters the natural chemical structure of the salt causing the potential for a myriad of health problems in your body.

So why are we still using common table salt? Because well over 90% of the world's salt is being used directly for industrial purposes that require pure sodium chloride. The remaining percentage is used for preserving processes and ends up on your kitchen table.

With the use of rigorous advertising, the salt industry is successful in convincing you there are actually health advantages to adding potentially toxic iodine and flouride (see below) to salt. In addition, your table salt very often contains dangerous preservatives not required to be listed on the packaging. Calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide are often added to improve the ability of table salt to pour. Aluminum  (see below) is a light alloy that deposits into your brain - a potential cause of Alzheimer's disease.

#3: MILK:

There is no comparison, both in terms of health and of taste, between fresh, clean, unprocessed milk from healthy, pastured cows and commercial milk, and most especially skim or reduced fat milk. Commercial milk is little more than a junk food metabolized as sugar, and it is a known source of allergies and "lactose intolerance" and related problems. Organic pasturized milk is only marginally better than regular milk. Ultrapasturized or irradiated milk is the worst of the bunch.

Article on Raw Milk vs Pasturized Milk.

Article on why you don't want to drink pasturized milk.

MUCH more on the benefits and myths of raw milk

#4. SOY:

According to Kaayla Daniel, PhD, CCN, nutritionist and author of The Whole Soy Story: The Dark Side of America's Favorite Health Food soy is not a health food, nor a panacea - and it has never even been proven safe. Rather, our current love affair with all things soy is "a triumph of marketing over real science." Just as important is the overlooked fact that the soy products we are encouraged to consume in the U.S. are far different than the soy foods traditionally consumed in Asian diets, which centers on small-to-moderate amounts of NATURALLY FERMENTED miso, soy sauce, tofu and tempeh made from organic, non-gmo beans.

Among the many problems with today's ersatz soy food products,  one of the most troublesome has to do with parent's who are feeding their infants soy formula and therefore according to Dr. Daniel "unwittingly giving them the hormonal equivalent of three to five birth control pills a day" which then potentially interferes with brain and reproductive system development. This is particularly disturbing in view of the fact that - while a number of health authorities, including the Swiss Federal Health Service and The British Dietetic Association, have advised parents and pediatricians against the use of soy formula, a full 25% of bottle-fed American infants are given soy formula.

Here is the short list of problems associated with soy products:


Also of interest is Myths and Truths about Soy.


For more documentation and testimonies.

And read
The Whole Soy Story: The Dark Side of America's Favorite Health Food by Kaayla Daniel, PhD, CCN


#5. FOOD IRRADIATION:

Online Chapter from Fatal Harvest: The Tragedy of Industrial Agriculuture titled Nuclear Lunch: The Dangers and Unknowns of Food Irradiation

Also read the first four chapters of the book Food That would last Forever plus the list of related articles.


#6. COMMERCIAL MEAT, PORK AND POULTRY:

In addition to being subjected to unspeakabley cruel and inhumane treatment, commercial livestock animals are fed, injected and dunked before slaughter with a startling array of herbicides, pesticides, larvacides, hormones, antibiotics and other drugs.  Their “scientifically correct” feed includes their own recaptured contaminated feces together with the leftover scraps of other carcasses and of dead, diseased animals, including “road kill” - and recycled cardboard and paper products laden with petroleum-based waxes and plastics, dies and other chemicals. Even plastic - yes, plastic – hay, has been serioulsy researched as it can be used to aid the digestive process of animals that do not get the bulk (and nutrients) they could get from foraging on their own.

Crowded conditions and questionable feeding practices result in animals that are subject to disease and a variety of health problems. Because of this they require a steady diet of antibiotics - which are also used to speed up growth. More than 70% of all antibiotics used in the U.S. are put into the feed, and this in turn leads to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which then can be passed on to humans.

Thus it is no accident that the eleventh leading cause of death in the U.S. today is due to infections resistant to antibiotic treatment. In addition, synthetic hormones are used to fatten up the animal, or, in the case of rBGH, to increase the production of milk. Many of these hormones are linked in humans to weight gain, early onset puberty and other hormonal problems, and diabetes and cancer. Of course, many of these same health problems are daily reported in the media, but only rarely do reporters relate these human problems back to the most likely, scientifically established, underlying causes including (but not limited to) hormones given to animals.

Also, because these animals are kept in close confinement situations, they cannot forage for food on their own and so must be fed massive amounts of grain as a result. More than half of all U.S. grain (nearly all of which is genetically modified) and almost 40% of world grain now goes to feeding factory farmed livestock – a situation made necessary by monocrop agriculture.  Among other problems, diets heavy in grain unfavorably alter the fat profile of factory animals, even animals “finished off” in grain and even animals fed organic grain.

The meat from factory farmed and other grain-fed animals is higher in calories and higher in saturated fat (up to seven times more), and lower in a variety of important nutrients than is the meat from animals allowed to graze in healthy pastures the old-fashioned way. These nutrients include vitamins, minerals and various important fatty acids such as Vitamin E, the Omega 3 fatty acids – and CLA or conjugated linoleic acid, which is a fatty acid now being heavily promoted as an important factor in weight loss, and even more importantly in cancer prevention and even perhaps diabetes.

In response the beef industry is developing yet more hi-tech feeds to counter this unfortunate effect of grain-based diets. Chicken eggs are already available with a more favorable fat profile – they are known as high Omega 3 eggs.

Closely confined animals subjected to drug and chemical onslaught of course produce massive and concentrated amounts of toxic waste. The factory farm solution is to build giant “lagoons” to contain animal excrement. These lagoons can be as large as several football fields. This animal waste, along with human sewage has of course been turned into a rather unpopular, highly contaminated - and due to its horrific odor - easily identifiable “fertilizer.”

Perhaps even worse, according to information accessible at www.factoryfarm.org,
the air pollution from these “lagoons” can cause respiratory problems, skin infections, nausea, headaches, depression and even death for people who live near factory farms. The odor from these facilities can travel as much as 300 miles when the winds are right.  Water quality too, is seriously affected from seepage into groundwater and runoff. For example, in Virginia, state guidelines indicate that a safe level of fecal coliform bacteria is 200 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. Nevertheless, in 1997, some streams had levels as high as 424,000 colonies per 100 milliliters.

Worst of all is the threat posed when these lagoons burst open. The worst occurrence to date was in 1995, when an eight-acre lagoon burst open after heavy rains, spilling 25 million gallons of animal waste  into North Carolina's New River, killing 10 million fish and closing 364,000 acres of coastal wetlands to shell-fishing. Again regulations on every level - local, state and federal, including the EPA – effectively function to protect the interest of industry, not we the people, with operators of these facilities maintaining the position that because their lagoons are on their own property and they comply with all pertinent regulations, the issue is - well, a non-issue.  Although they desperately need political support, those citizens most directly affected by these operations are beginning to take action. One such group is located in Illinois and is called Families Against Rural Messes.

Obviously, animals living in such gruesome conditions are not healthy, and cannot provide you and me with high quality nourishment, however cheap their grocery store price. And they come with a whole truckload of hidden costs – mostly in the form of subsidies, tax incentives, and health and environmental damage, all of which is paid for by you and me at local, state and federal levels.

If you must purchase commercial meats, make it lean and add your own good fats in.  Note that many supermarkets are carrying hormone free meats which is at least a small step in the right direction. In addition lamb from New Zealand so far as we know is wholly grass fed.

As time permits of course, it is in your own best interest to make every effort to find sources for pastured meat products.
As always your best bet is to find a  small,  responsible farmer near you for your eggs and other animal  products.

#7: ALCOHOL:

Traditional cultures drank alcoholic beverages that were made through a no-heat natural fermentation process out of high quality ingredients. The result was a beverage low in alcohol and rich in enzymes and minerals, a very far cry from today's alcoholic beverages. It was Louis Pasteur who introduced his special heat process to wine and beer producers who were then being threatened by moldy, inferior grape and grain crops. Pasteur's technique resulted in a product fairly indistinguishable from the more painstaking fermentation process, and it was through the beer and wine industry that Pasteur made his money.

By 1898, "fake" whiskey was becoming a cause for deep concern by Dr. Harvey Wiley, then head of the Bureau of Cemistry and future administrator of the original FDA called The Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act of 1906. Because of Dr. Wiley's monumental efforts as chief of the first FDA to eliminate harmful food products from the market and the consumer, he was forced out of office in 1912 by the same politically powerful forces he labored against. He then wrote about his experiences but all his original manuscripts disappeared when he tried to get them published. Not to be deterred Dr. Wiley painstakingly reconstructed to the best of his ability his lost work, and self published under the title History of a Crime Against the Food Law, which also disappeared from book shelves and libraries within weeks of his death in 1929, shortly after publication. A manuscript was later recovered and the text appears on line. In Chapter Three, Dr. Wiley discusses the problem with "fake" whiskey with an excerpt as follows:
" As early as 1898 the question of the character of distilled alcoholic beverages became quite acute. A heavy tax was laid on manufactured alcohol, both for beverage and industrial use. A great change had been made in the method of making pure alcohol. The continuous still, an implement which was continuously charged with fermented mash and which continuously produced a very pure spirit revolutionized the process of distillation and made pure untaxed alcohol remarkably cheap. This method of  making neutral spirit was entirely different from the manufacture of beverage whiskey. The Congress of the United States had legalized the mixing of genuine whiskey with this neutral spirit, and coloring and flavoring the mixture by an Act defining rectifying. The so-called rectified product was placed on the market under the name and appearance of the genuine article. Existing law provided no penalties for this fraud." Read full chapter
Since that time things have gone from bad to worse for alcholic beverages. Here is the way Dr. Ron Schmid tells it in his book
Traditional Foods Are Your Best Medicine:

Because alcoholic beverages are not regulated by the FDA, a wide variety of toxic ingredients found in liquor and most wines and beers are not listed on the label. These substances include ammonia, asbestos residues, coloring and flavoring agents, glycerin, hydrogen peroxide, lead residues, mineral oil, methylene chloride, plastic, pesticide residues, and sulfur compounds. . .

Many people enjoy an occasional beer, especially in hot weather. German law allows only the use of hops, malt and water in the brewing process; imported German beers are thus quite pure. Some other imported beers (and several American beers also) are made from only natural ingredients without the use of chemicals or preservatives, as are a few American and imported wines. . . [but again the label will not tell you this]

Ingredients and equipment for making beer and wine at home are available. Unlike commercial beer, home brew need not be pasteurized before bottling; thus enzymes natural to the fermented raw product are left undisturbed. Advances in the equipment, techniques, and raw materials available have made it possible to home-brew beer healthier than any available commercially for a fraction of the cost. Carefully made, such beer may equal the taste of the finest imported beers.